Bibliografie selectiva

1.Kusumoto FM, Goldschlager N. Cardiac pacing. N Engl J Med 1996;334:89–97.
2.Jeffrey K, Parsonnet V. Cardiac pacing, 1960–1985: a quarter century of medical and industrial innovation. Circulation 1998;97:1978–1991.
3.Trohman RG, Kim MH, Pinski SL. Cardiac pacing: the state of the art.Lancet 2004;364:1701–1719.
4.Luderitz B. We have come a long way with device therapy: historical pers-pectives on antiarrhythmic electrother
apy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol2002;13(Suppl. 1):S2–S8.
5.Elmqvist R, Senning A°. Implantable pacemaker for the heart. In: SmythCN, ed. Medical Electronics. Proceedi
ngs of the Second InternationalConference on Medical Electronics, Paris, 24–27 June 1959. London, UK:
Iliffe & Sons; 1960. p253–254. (Abstract).
6.Ferrer I. The Sick Sinus Syndrome. Mt Kisco, NY: USA Futura Publishing  Inc.; 1974.
7.Fairfax AJ, Lambert CD, Leatham A.Systemic embolism in chronic sino-atrial disorder. New Engl J Med 1976;295:1455–1458.
8.Sanchez-Quintana D, Cabrera JA, Farre J, Climent V, Anderson RH, HoSY. Sinus node revisited in the era of electroanatomical mapping and catheter ablation. Heart 2005;91:189–194.
9.Brignole M, Menozzi C, Gianfranchi L et al. Neurally mediated syncope detected by carotid sinus massage and head-up tilt test in sick sinus syndrome. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:1032–1036.
10. Abbott JA, Hirschfield DS, Kunkel FW et al. Graded exercise testing in patients with sinus node dysfunction. Am J Med 1977;62:330–338.
11. Holden W, McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH. Characterization of heart rate response to exercise in the sick sinus syndrome. Br Heart J 1978;20:923–930.
12. Rubenstein JJ, Schulman CL, Yurchak PM et al. Clinical spectrum of the sick sinus syndrome. Circulation 1972;46:5–13.
13. Hartel G, Talvensaari T. Treatment of sinoatrial syndrome with permanent cardiac pacing in 90 patients. Acta Med Scand 1975;198:341–377.
14. Skagen K, Fischer Hansen J. The long term prognosis for patients with sinoatrial block treated with permanent pacemaker. Acta Med Scand 1976;199:13–15.
15. Kay R, Estioko M, Wiener I. Primary sick sinus syndrome as an indication for chronic pacemaker therap
y in young adults: incidence, clinical features, and long-term evaluation. Am Heart J 1982;103:338–342.
16. Albin G, Hayes DL, Holmes DR Jr. Sinus node dysfunction in pediatric and young adult patients: treatment by implantation of a permanent pacemaker in 39 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 1985;60:667–672.
17. Shaw DB, Holman RR, Gowers JI. Survival in sinoatrial disorder (sicksinus syndrome). Br Med J 1980;280:139–141.
18. Rasmussen K. Chronic sinus node disease: natural course and indications for pacing. Eur Heart J 1981;2:455–459.
19. Lichstein E, Aithal H, Jonas S et al. Natural history of severe sinus bradycardia discovered by 24 hour Holter monitoring. Pacing ClinElectrophysiol 1982;5:185–189.
20. Fuster V, Ryden LE, Cannom DS et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines, the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation) developed in collaboration
with the European Heart Rhythm Asso ciation, the Heart Rhythm Society.Europace 2006;8:651–745.
21. Andersen HR, Thuesen L, Bagger JP et al. Prospective randomized trial of atrial versus ventricular pacing
in sick sinus syndrome. Lancet 1994;344:1523–1528.
22. Lamas GA, Orav EJ, Stambler BS et al. Pacemaker Selection in the Elderly Investigators: quality of life and clinical outcomes in elderly patients treated with ventricular pacing as compared with dualchamber pacing. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1097–1104.
23. Connolly SJ, Kerr CR, Gent M et al. Effects of physiologic pacing versus ventricular pacing on the risk of stroke and death due to cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1385–1391.
24. Lamas GA, Lee KL, Sweeney MO et al., for the Mode Selection Trial in Sinus-Node Dysfunction. Ventricular pacing or dual-chamber pacing for sinus-node dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1854–1862.
25. Nielsen JC, Kristensen L, Andersen HR et al. A randomized comparison of atrial and dual-chamber pacing in 177 consecutive patients with sick sinus syndrome: echocardiographic and clinical outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol
26. Padeletti L, Purefellner H, Adler SW et al., Worldwide ASPECT Investigators. Combined efficacy of at
rial septal lead placement and atrial pacing algorithms for prevention of paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmia. J
Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14L:1189–1195.
27. Mitchell ARJ, Sulke N. How do atrial pacing algorithms prevent atrial arrhythmias? Europace 2004;6:351–362.
28. Israel CW, Hohnloser SH. Pacing to prevent atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14:S20–S26.
29. Carlson M, Ip J, Messenger J, Beau S et al., Atrial Dynamic Overdrive Pacing Trial [ADOPT] Investigators. A new pacemaker algorithm for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: results of the Atrial Overdrive Pacing Trial
[ADOPT]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:627–633.
30. Lee MA, Weachter R, Pollak S et al., ATTEST Investigators. The effect of atrial pacing therapies on atrial t
achyarrhythmia burden and frequency: a randomized trial in patients with bradycardia and atrial tachyarrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1926–1932.
31. Knight BP, Gersh BJ, Carlson MD et al. Role of permanent pacing to prevent atrial fibrillation: science ad
visory from the American Heart Asso-ciation Council on Clinical Cardiology [Subcommittee on Electrocardio-
graphy and Arrhythmias] and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2005;111:240–243.
32. Connolly SJ, Kerr C, Gent M et al. Dual-chamber versus ventricular pacing. Critical appraisal of current data. Circulation 1996;94:578–583.
33. Rinfret S, Cohen DJ, Lamas GA et al. Cost-effectiveness of dual-chamber pacing compared with ventricular pacing for sinus node dysfunction. Circulation 2005;111:165–172.
34. Dretzke J, Toff WD, Lip GYH, Raftery J, Fry-Smith A, Taylor R. Dual chamber versus single chamber vent
ricular pacemakers for sick sinus syndrome and atrioventricular block. Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews 2004, 2, Art. no. CD003710.
35. Kristensen L, Nielsen JC, Pedersen AK, Mortensen PT, Andersen HR. AV block and changes in pacing mode during long-term follow-up of 399 consecutive patients with sick sinus syndrome treated with an AAI/ AAIR
pacemaker. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2001;24:358–365.
36. Brandt J, Anderson H, Fahraeus T, Schuller H. Natural history of sinus node disease treated with atrial pacing in 213 patients: implications for selection of stimulation mode. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20:633–639.
37. Freidberg CK, Donoso E, Stein WG. Nonsurgical acquired heart block. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1964;111:835.
38. Gadboys HL, Wisoff BG, Litwak RS. Surgical treatment of complete heart block: an analysis of 36 cases. JAMA 1964;189:97.
39. Johansson BW. Complete heart block: a clinical, hemodynamic and pharmacological study in patients with and without an artificial pacemaker. Acta Med Scand 1966;180(Suppl. 451):1.
40. Hindman MC, Wagner GS, JaRo M et al . The clinical significance of bundle branch block complicating acute myocardial infarction: indications for temporary and permanent pacemaker insertion. Circulation 1978;58:689–
41. Donmoyer TL, DeSanctis RW, Austen WG. Experience with implantable pacemakers using myocardial electrodes in the management of heart block. Ann Thorac Surg 1967;3:218.
42. Edhag O, Swahn A. Prognosis of patients with complete heart block or arrhythmic syncope who were not treat
ed with artificial pacemakers: a long-term follow up study of 101 patients. Acta Med Scand 1976; 200:457–463.
43. Strasberg B, Amat-Y-Leon F, Dhingra RC et al. Natural history of chronic second-degree atrioventricular nodal block. Circulation 1981;63: 1043–1049.
44. Connelly DT, Steinhaus DM. Mobitz type I atrioventricular block: an indication for permanent pacing? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1996;19: 261–264.
45. Shaw DB, Gowers JI, Kekwick CA, New KHJ, Whistance AWT. Is Mobitz type I atrioventricular block benign in adults? Heart 2004;90:169–174.
46. Donoso E, Adler LN, Friedberg CK. Unusual forms of second degree atrioventricular block, in
cluding Mobitz type-II block, associated with the Morgagni–Adams–Stokes syndrome. Am Heart J 1964;67:150–157.
47. Ranganathan N, Dhurandhar R, Phillips JH et al. His bundle electrogram in bundle-branch block. Circulation 1972;45:282–294.
48. Barold SS. Indications for permanent cardiac pacing in first degree AV block: class I, II, or III? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1996;19:747–751.
49. Kim YH, O’Nunain S, Trouton T et al. Pseudopacemaker syndrome following inadvertent fast pathway ablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1993;4:178–182.
50. Chokshi SK, Sarmiento J, Nazari J et al. Exercise-provoked distal atrioventricular block. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:114–116.
51. Barold SS, Falkoff MD, Ong LS et al. Atrioventricular block: new insights.In: Barold SS, Mugica J,eds. New Perspectives in Cardiac Pacing. Mount Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing Co.; 1991. p23–52.
52. Perloff JK, Stevenson WG, Roberts NK et al. Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert’s
disease): a prospective study of 25 patients. Am J Cardiol 1984;54:1074–1081.
53. Hiromasa S, Ikeda T, Kubota K et al. Myotonic dystrophy: ambulatory electrocardiogram, electrophysiologic
study, and echocardiographic evaluation. Am Heart J 1987;113:1482–1488.
54. Stevenson WG, Perloff JK, Weiss JN et al. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: evidence for selective,
genetic electrophysiologic cardiac cinvolvement. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;15:292–299.
55. James TN, Fisch C. Observations on the cardiovascular involvement in Friedreich’s ataxia. Am Heart J 1963;66:164–175.
56. Roberts NK, Perloff JK, Kark RAP. Cardiac conduction in the Kearns–Sayre syndrome (a neuromuscular disorder associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and pigmentary retinopathy): report of 2 cases and
review of 17 published cases. Am J Cardiol 1979;44:1396–1400.
57. Charles R, Holt S, Kay JM et al. Myocardial ultrastructure and the development of atrioventricular block in Kearns–Sayre syndrome. Circulation 1981;63:214–219.
58. James TN. Observations on the cardiovascular involvement, including the conduction system, in progressive muscular dystrophy. Am Heart J 1962;63:48–56.
59. Gallagher JJ, Svenson RH, Kasell JH et al. Catheter technique for closed-chest ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system. N Engl J Med 1982;306:194–200.
60. Langberg JJ, Chin MC, Rosenqvist M et al. Catheter ablation of the atrioventricular junction with radiofrequency energy. Circulation 1989;80:1527–1535.
61. Kim MH, Deeb GM, Eagle KA et al. Complete atrioventricular block after valvular heart surgery and the timing of pacemaker implantation. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:649–651.
62. Schneider JF, Thomas HE, Kreger BE et al. Newly acquired left bundle branch block: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1979;90:303–310.
63. Schneider JF, Thomas HE, Kreger BE et al. Newly acquired right bundle branch block: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1980;92:37–44.
64. Eriksson P, Hansson PO, Eriksson H, Dellborg M. Bundle-branch block in a general male population: the study of men born 1913. Circulation 1998;98:2494–2500.
65. Dhingra RC, Palileo E, Strasberg B et al. Significance of the HV interval in 517 patients with chronic bifascicular block. Circulation 1981;64:1265–1271.
66. McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH, Murphy E et al. Natural history of ‘high risk’ bundle branch block: final report of a prospective study. N Engl J Med 1982;307:137–143.
67. Scheinman MM, Peters RW, Morady F et al. Electrophysiological studies in patients with bundle branch block. PACE 1983;6:1157–1165.
68. McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH. Bundle branch block. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1984;26:333–354.
69. Dhingra RC, Denes P, Wu D et al. Syncope in patients with chronic bifascicular block: significance,
causative mechanisms and clinical implications. Ann Intern Med 1974;81:302–306.
70. Wiberg TA, Richman HG, Gobel FL. The significance and prognosis of chronic bifascicular block. Chest 1977;71:329–334.
71. Scheinman MM, Peters RW, Sauve MJ et al. Value of the H-Q interval in patients with bundle branch block and the role of prophylactic permanent pacing. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:1316–1322.
72. Englund A. Electrophysiological studies in patients with bifascicular block. Thesis, Karolinska Inst
itute, Stockholm.
73. Rosen KM, Rahimtoola SH, Chuquimia R et al. Electrophysiological significance of first degree atrioventricular block with intraventricular conduction disturbance. Circulation 1971;43:491–502.
74. Dhingra RC, Wyndham C, Bauernfeind R et al. Significance of block distal to the His bundle induce
d by atrial pacing in patients with chronic bifascicular block. Circulation 1979;60:1455–1464.
75. Petrac D, Radic B, Birtic K et al. Block induced by atrial pacing in the presence of chronic bundle branch block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1996;19:784–792.
76. Peters RW, Scheinman MM, Modin C et al. Prophylactic permanent pacemakers for patients w
ith chronic bundle branch block. Am J Med 1979;66:978–985.
77. Gronda M, Magnani A, Occhetta E et al. Electrophysiologic study of atrio-ventricular block and ventricular
conduction defects. Prognostic and therapeutical implications. G Ital Cardiol 1984;14:768–773.
78. Ezri M, Lerman BB, Marchlinski FE et al. Electro physiologic evaluation of syncope in patients with bifascicular block. Am Heart J 1983;106: 693–697.
79. Twidale N, Heddle WF, Ayres BF et al. Clinical implications of electro-physiology study findings in patients with chronic bifascicular block and syncope. Aust N Z J Med 1988;18:841–847.
80. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Moya A et al., International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology (ISSUE) Investigators. Mechanism of syncope in patients with bundle branch block and negative electrophysiological test.
Circulation 2001;104:2045–2050.
81. Connolly SJ, Kerr CR, Gent M et al., the Canadian Trial of Physiological Pacing (CTOPP) Investigators. Effe
cts of physiologic pacing versus ventricular pacing on the risk of stroke, death due to cardiovascular causes.
N Engl J Med 2000;342:1385–1391.
82. Kerr C, Connolly SJ, Abdollah H, Tang AS, Talajic M, Klein GJ, Newman DM et al., the Canadian Trial of
Physiological Pacing (CTOPP) Investigators. Effects of physiological pacing during long-term follow-up.
Circulation 2004;109:357–362.
83. Tang AS, Roberts RS, Kerr C et al., the Canadian Trial of Physiologic Pacing (CTOPP) Investigators. Relationship between pacemaker dependency, the effect of pacing mode on cardiovascular outcomes.
Circulation 2001;103:3081–3085.
84. Lamas GA, Orav EJ, Stambler BS et al., the Pacemaker Selection in the Elderly Investigators. Quality of life, clinical outcomes in elderly patients treated with ventricular pacing as compared with dualchamber pacing. N
Engl J Med 1998;338:1097–1104.
85. Toff WD, Camm J, Skehan D et al., the United Kingdom Pacing,Cardiovascular Events (UKPACE) Trial Investigators. Single-chamber versus dual-chamber pacing for high-grade atrioventricular block. N Engl J
Med 2005;353:145–155.
86. Huang M, Krahn AD, Yee R et al . Optimal pacing for symptomatic AV block: a comparison of VDD and DDD pacing. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004;27:19–23.
87. Wiegand UK, Potratz J, Bode F et al. Cost-effectiveness of dual-chamber pacemaker therapy: does single lead VDD pacing reduce treatment costs of atrioventricular block? Eur Heart J 2001;22:174–180.
88. Wiegand UK, Bode F, Schneider R et al. Atrial sensing and AV synchrony in single lead VDD pacemakers: a prospective comparison to DDD devices with bipolar atrial leads. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:513–520.
89. Wiegand UK, Bode F, Schneider R et al. Development of sinus node disease in patients with AV block: implications for single lead VDD pacing. Heart 1999;81:580–585.
90. Wilkoff BL, Cook JR, Epstein AE et al., Dual Chamber, VVI Implantable Defibrillator Trial Investigators. Dual-chamber pacing or ventricular backup pacing in patients with an implantable defibrillator: the Dual Chamber and
VVI Implantable Defibrillator (DAVID) Trial. JAMA 2002;288:3115–3123.
91. Hoijer CJ, Meurling C, Brandt J. Upgrade to biventricular pacing in patients with conventional pacemakers and heart failure: a doubleblind, randomized crossover study. Euro pace 2006;8 :51–55.
92. Witte KK, Pipes RR, Nanthakumar K et al. Biventricular pacemaker upgrade in previously paced heart fail
ure patients—improvements in ventri- cular dyssynchrony. J Card Fail 2006;12:199–204.
93. Kindermann M, Hennen B, Jung J et al. Biventricular versus conventional right ventricular stimulation for patients with standard pacing indication and left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1927–1937.
94. Wiggers CJ. The muscle reactions of the mammalian ventricles to artificial surface stimuli. Am J Physiol 1925;73:346–378.
95. Adomian GE, Beazel l J. Myofibrillar disarray produced in normal hearts by chronic electrical pacing. Am Heart J 1986;112:79–83.
96. Boucher CA, Pohost GM, Okada RD et al. Effect of ventricular pacing on left ventricular function assessed by radionuclide angiography. Am Heart J 1983;106:1105–1111.
97. Tantengco MV, Thomas RL, Karpawich PP. Left ventricular dysfunction after long-term right ventricular api
cal pacing in the young. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:2093–2100. 37
98. Thambo JB, Bordachar P, Garrrigue S et al. Detrimental ventricular remodeling in patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular apical pacing. Circulation 2005;110:3766–3772.
99. Nahlawi M, Waligora M, Spies SM et al. Left ventricular function during and after right ventricular pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;4:1883–1888.
100. Tse H-F, Yu C, Wong K-K et al. Functional abnormalities in patients with permanent right ventricular pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1451–1458.
101. Simantirakis EN, Prassopoulos VK, Chrysostomakis SI et al. Effects of asynchronous ventricular activation on myocardial adrenergic innervation in patients with permanent dual-chamber pacemakers: an I(123)-metaiodoben-
zylguanidine cardiac scintigraphic study. Eur Heart J 2001;22:323–332.
102. Victor F, Leclercq C, Mabo P et al. Optimal right ventricular pacing site in chronically implanted patients: a pr
ospective randomized crossover comparison of apical and outflow tract pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:311–
103. Schwaab B, Frohlig G, Alexander C et al. Influence of right ventricular stimulation site on left ventricular function in atrial synchronous ventricular pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:317–323.
104. Buckingham TA, Candinas R, Attenhofer C et al. Systolic and diastolic function with alternate an
d combined site pacing in the right ventricle.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1998;21:1077–1084.
105. Kolettis TM, Kyriakides ZS, Tsiapras D et al. Improved left ventricular relaxation during short-term right ventricular outflow tract compared to apical pacing. Chest 2000;117:60–64.
106. Buckingham TA, Candinas R, Schlapfer J et al. Acute hemodynamic effects of atrioventricular pacing at differing sites in the right ventricle individually and simultaneously. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:909–915.
107. Karpawich PP, Mital S. Comparative left ventricular function following atrial, septal, and apical single chambe
r heart pacing in the young. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:1983–1988.
108. Giudici MC, Thornburg GA, Buck DL et al. Comparison of right ventricular outflow tract and apical lead permanent pacing on cardiac output. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:209–212.
109. Mera F, DeLurgio DB, Patterson RE et al. A comparison of ventricular function during high right ventricular septal and apical pacing after His bundle ablation for refractory atrial fibrillation. Pacing Cl in Electrophysiol
110. de Cock CC, Giudici MC, Twisk JW. Comparison of the haemodynamic effects of right ventricular outflow-tract
pacing with right ventricular apex pacing: a quantitative review. Europace 2003;5:275–278.
111. Stambler BS, Ellenbogen K, Zhang X et al., ROVA Investigators. Right ventricular outflow versus apical pacing in pacemaker patients with congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol
112. Occhetta E, Bortnik M, Magnani A et al. Prevention of ventricular desynchronization by permanent para-hisian pacing after atrioventricular node ablation in chronic atrial fibrillation a crossover, blinded, randomized study
versus apical right ventricular pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47:1938–1945.
113. Simantirakis EN, Vardakis KE, Kochiadakis GE et al. Left ventricular mechanics during right ventricular apical or left ventricular-based pacing in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation after atrioventricular junction abla-
tion. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1013–1018.
114. Victor F, Mabo P, Mansour H, Pavin D, Kabalu G, de Place C, Leclercq C, Daubert JC. A randomized comparison of permanent septal pacing versus apical right ventricular pacing. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2006;17:1–5.
115. Harpaz D, Behar S, Gottlieb S et al., SPRINT Study Group, the Israeli Thrombolytic Survey Group. Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial. Complete atrioventricular block complicating acute myo-
cardial infarction in the thrombolytic era. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:1721–1728.
116. Wong CK, Stewart RAH, Gao W et al. Prognostic differences between different types of bundle branch block during the early phase of acute myocardial infarction: insights from the Hirulog and Early Reperfusion or
Occlusion (HERO)-2 trial. Eur Heart J 2006;27:21–28.
117. Goldberg RJ, Zevallos JC, Yarzebski J et al. Prognosis of acute myocardial infarction complicated by complete heart block: the Worcester Heart Attack Study. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:1135–1141.
118. Hindman M, Wagner GS, JaRo M et al. The clinical significance of bundle branch block complicating acute my
ocardial infarction. 1. Clinical characteristics, hospital mortality and one year follow-up. Circulation
119. Meine TJ, Al-Khatib SM, Alexander JH et al. Incidence, predictors, and outcomes of high-degree atrioventricular block complication acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy. Am Heart J 2005;149:670–674.
120. Clemmensen P, Bates ER, Califf RM et al. Complete atrioventricular block complicating inferior wall acute myocardial infarction treated with reperfusion therapy. Am J Cardiol 1991;67:225–230.
121. Berger PB, Ruocco NA, Ryan TJ et al. Incidence and prognostic implications of heart block complicating inferior myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy: results from TIMI II. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;
122. Newby KH, Pisano E, Krucoff MW et al. Incidence and clinical relevance of the occurrence of bundle-branch block in patients treated with thrombolytic therapy. Circulation 1996;94:2424–2428.
123. Behar S, Zissman E, Zion M et al. Complete atrioventricular block complicating inferior acute wall myocardial infarction: short- and long-term prognosis. Am Heart J 1993;125:1622–1627.
124. Zimetbaum PJ, Josephson ME. Use of the electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2003;348:933–940.
125. Ginks WR, Sutton R, Oh W et al. Long-term prognosis after acute anterior infarction with atrioventricular block. Br Heart J 1977;39:186–189.
126. Domenighetti G, Perret C. Intraventricular conduction disturbances in acute myocardial infarction: short- and long-term prognosis. Eur J Cardiol 1980;11:51–59.
127. Behar S, Zissman E, Zion M et al. Prognostic significance of second degree atrioventricular block in inferior wa
ll acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:831–834.
128. Col JJ, Weinberg SL. The incidence and mortality of intraventricular conduction defects in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1972;29:344–350.
129. Brignole M, Alboni P, Benditt D et al. Guidelines on management (diagnosis and treatment) of syncop
e–update 2004. Euro pace 2004;6: 467–537.
130. Moss AJ, Glaser W, Topol E. Atrial tachypacing in the treatment of a patient with primary orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med 1980;302: 1456–1457.
131. Goldberg MR, Robertson RM, Robertson D. Atrial tachypacing for primary orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med 1980;303:885–886.
132. Kristinsson A. Programmed atrial pacing for orthostatic hypotension. ActaMed Scand 1983;214:79–83.
133. Weissman P, Chin MT, Moss AJ. Cardiac tachypacing for severe refractory idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:650–651.
134. Grubb BP, Wolfe DA, Samoil D et al. Adaptive rate pacing controlled by right ventricular preejection interval
for severe refractory orthostatic hypotension. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1993;16:801–805.
135. Roskam J. Un syndrome nouveau: syncopes cardiaques graves et syncopes répétées par hypereflexivité sinocarotidienne. Presse Med 1930;38:590–591.
136. Weiss S, Baker J. The carotid sinus reflex in health and disease: its role in the causation of fainting and convulsions. Medicine 1933;12:297–354.
137. Thomas JE. Hyperactive carotid sinus reflex and carotid sinus syncope. Mayo Clin Proc 1969;44:127–139.
138. Blanc JJ, L’heveder G, Mansourati J et al. Assessment of a newly recognized association: carotid sinus hypersensitivity and denervation of sternocleidomastoid muscles. Circulation 1997;95:2548–2551.
139. Mc Intosh SJ, Lawson J, Kenny RA. Clinical characteristics of vasodepressor, cardioinhibitory and mixed carotid sinus syndrome in the elderly. Am J Med 1993;95:203–208.
140. Parry SW, Richardson D, O’Shea D et al. Diagnosis of carotid sinus hypersensitivity in older adults: carotid sinus massage in the upright position is essential. Heart 2000;83:22–23.
141. Voss DM. Demand pacing and carotid sinus syncope. Am Heart J 1970;79:544–547.
142. Von Maur K, Nelson EW, Holsinger JW et al. Hypersensitive carotid syndrome treated by implantable de
mand cardiac pacemaker. Am J Cardiol 1972;29:109–110.
143. Madigan NP, Flaker GC, Curtis JJ et al. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity: beneficial effects of dual-chamber pacing. Am J Cardiol 1984;53: 1034–1040.
144. Morley CA, Perrins EJ, Grant PL et al. Carotid sinus syncope treated by pacing. Analysis of persistent symptoms and role of atrioventricular sequential pacing. Br Heart J 1982;47:411–418.
145. Blanc JJ, Boschat J, Penther Ph. Hypersensibilite ́ sino-carotidienne. Evolution a` moyen terme en fonction du traitement et de ses symptomes. ArchMal Coeur 1984;77:330–336.
146. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Lolli G et al. Long-term outcome of paced and non paced patients with severe carotid sinus syndrome. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:1039–1043.
147. Menozzi C, Brignole M, Lolli G et al. Follow-up of asystolic episodes in patients with cardioinhibitory, neurally mediated syncope and VVI pacemaker. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1152–1155.
148. Sugrue DD, Gersh BJ, Holmes DR et al. Symptomatic ‘isolated’ carotid sinus hypersensitivity: natural history and results of treatment with anticholinergic drugs or pacemaker. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;7:158–162.
149. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Lolli G et al. Validation of a method for choice of pacing mode in carotid sinus syndrome with or without sinus bradycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1991;14:196–203.
150. Brignole M, Sartore B, Barra M et al. Is DDD superior to VVI pacing in mixed carotid sinus syndrome? An acute and medium-term study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1988;11:1902–1910.
151. Blanc JJ, Cazeau S, Ritter P et al. Carotid sinus syndrome: acute hemodynamic evaluation of a dual chamber pacing mode. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1995;18:1902–1908.
152. Ammirati F, Colivicchi F, Santini M. Diagnosing syncope in the clinical practice. Implementation of a simplifie
d diagnostic algorithm in a multicentre prospective trial—the OESIL 2 study (Osservatorio Epidemiologico della
Sincope nel Lazio). Eur Heart J 2000;21:935–940.
153. Blanc JJ, L’Her C, Touiza A et al. Prospective evaluation and outcome of patients admitted for syncope over 1 year period. Eur Heart J 2002;23:815–820.
154. Disertori M, Brignole M, Menozzi C et al. Management of syncope referred for emergency to general hospitals. Europace 2003;5:283–291.
155. Moya A, Permanyer-Miralda G, Sagrista-Sauleda J et al. Limitations of head-up tilt test for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in patients with vasovagal syncope: results of a controlled study of etilefrine
versus placebo. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25:65–69.
156. Morillo CA, Leitch JW, Yee R et al. A placebo-controlled trial of intravenous and oral disopyramide for prevention of neurally mediated syncope induced by head-up tilt. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:1843–1848.
157. Raviele A, Brignole M, Sutton R et al. Effect of etilefrine in preventing syncopal recurrence in patients with vasovagal syncope: a double-blind, 38 randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The Vasovagal Syncope International
Study. Circulation 1999;99:1452–1457.
158. Moya A, Brignole M, Menozzi C et al. Mechanism of syncope in patients with isolated syncope and in patients with tilt-positive syncope. Circulation 2001;104:1261–1267.
159. Benditt DG, Fahy GJ, Lurie KG et al. Pharmacotherapy of neurally mediated syncope. Circulation 1999;100:1242–1248.
160. Brignole M. Randomized clinical trials of neurally mediated syncope. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14:564–569.
161. Fitzpatrick A, Theodorakis G, Ahmed R et al. Dual chamber pacing aborts vasovagal syncope induced by 60 degree tilt. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1991;14:13–19.
162. Sra J, Jayaseri MR, Avitall B et al. Comparison of cardiac pacing with drug therapy in the treatment of neurocardiogenic (vaso vagal) syncope with bradycardia or asystole. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1085–1090.
163. Petersen MEV, Chamberlain-Webber R, Fitzpatrick A et al. Permanent pacing for cardio-inhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome. Br Heart J 1994;71:274–281.
164. Benditt DG, Petersen MEV, Lurie KG et al. Cardiac pacing for prevention of recurrent vasovagal syncope. Ann Int Med 1995;122:204–209.
165. Sutton R, Brignole M, Menozzi C et al. Dual-chamber pacing in treatment of neurally-mediated tilt-positive
cardioinhibitory syncope. Pacemaker versus no therapy: a multicentre randomized study. Circulation 2000;102:
166. Connolly SJ, Sheldon R, Roberts RS et al., Vasovagal Pacemaker Study Investigators. The North American
vasovagal pacemaker study (VPS): a randomized trial of permanent cardiac pacing for the prevention of
vasovagal syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:16–20.
167. Ammirati F, Colivicchi F, Santini M et al. Permanent cardiac pacing versus medical treatment for the prevention of recurrent vasovagal syncope. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 2001;104:52–57.
168. Connolly SJ, Sheldon R, Thorpe KE et al., for the VPS II Investigators. Pacemaker therapy for prevention of syncope in patients with recurrent severe vasovagal syncope: Second Vasovagal Pacemaker Study (VPS II).
JAMA 2003;289:2224–2229.
169. Raviele A, Giada F, Menozzi C et al., Vasovagal Syncope, Pacing Trial Investigators. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of permanent cardiac pacing for the treatment of recurrent tilt-induced
vasovagal syncope. The Vasovagal Syncope and Pacing Trial (SYNPACE).  Eur Heart J 2004;25:1741–1748.
170. Brignole M, Sutton R, Menozzi C et al. Early application of an implantable loop recorder allows effective specific therapy in patients with recurrent suspected neurally mediated syncope. Eur Heart J 2006;27:1085–1092.
171. Ammirati F, Colivicchi F, Santini M. Diagnosing syncope in the clinical practice. Implementation of a simplified diagnostic algorithm in a multicentre prospective trial—the OESIL 2 study (Osservatorio Epidemiologico
della Sincope nel Lazio). Eur Heart J 2000;21:935–940.
172. Flammang D, Church T, Waynberger M et al. Can adenosine 5Otriphosphatebe used to select treatment in severe vasovagal syndrome? Circulation 1997;96:1201–1208.
173. Brignole M, Gaggioli G, Menozzi C et al. Adenosine-induced atrioventricular block in patients with unexplained syncope. The diagnostic value of ATP test. Circulation 1997;96:3921–3927.
174. Donateo P, Brignole M, Menozzi C et al. Mechanism of syncope in patients with positive ATP test. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:93–98.
175. Flammang D, Antiel M, Church Tet al. Is a pacemaker indicated for vasovagal patients with severe cardioinhibitory reflex as identified by the ATP test? A preliminary randomized trial. Europace 1999;1:140–145.
176. Deharo JC, Jego C, Lanteaume A, Dijane P. An implantable loop recorder study of highly symptomatic vasovagal patients: the heart rhythm observed during a spontaneous syncope is identical to the recurrent syncope but not correlated with the head-up tilt test or ATP test. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:587–593.
177. Brignole M, Sutton R, Menozzi C et al. Lack of correlation between the responses to tilt testing and adenosine triphosphate test and the mechanism of spontaneous neurally-mediated syncope. Eur Heart J 2006;27: 2232–
178. Thaulow E, Webb G, Hoffman A et al. Task Force on the management of grown up congenital heart disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1035–1084.
179. Walsh EP, Cecchin F. Recent advances in pacemaker and implantable defibrillator therapy for young patients. Curr Opin Cardiol 2004;19:91–96.
180. Berul C, Cecchin F. Indications and techniques of pediatric cardiac pacing. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2003;1:165–176.
181. Flinn CJ, Wolff GS, Dick M et al. Cardiac rhythm after the Mustard operation for complete transposition of the great arteries. N Engl J Med 1984;310:1635–1638.
182. Yabek SM, Jarmakani JM. Sinus node dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatrics 1978;61:593–598.
183. Kavey RE, Gaum WE, Byrum CJ, Smith FC, Kveselis DA. Loss of sinus rhythm after total cavopulmonary connection. Circulation 1995;92(Suppl.9):II304–II308.
184. Rein AJ, Simcha A, Ludomirsky A et al. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia in infants with structurally normal hearts. J Pediatr 1985;107:724–727.
185. Kay R, Estioko M, Wiener I. Primary sick sinus syndrome as an indication for chronic pacemaker therap
y in young adults: incidence, clinical features,and long-term evaluation. Am Heart J 1982;103:338–342.
186. Mackintosh AF. Sinoatrial disease in young people. Br Heart J 1981;45: 62–66.
187. Stephenson EA, Casavant D, Tuzi J et al. Efficacy of atrial antitachycardia pacing using the Medtronic AT500 pacemaker in patients with congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:871–876.
188. Michaelsson M, Engle MA. Congenital complete heart block: an international study of the natural history. Cardiovasc Clin 1972;4:85–101.
189. Anderson RH, Wenick ACG et al. Congenitally complete heart block: developmental aspects. Circulation 1977;56:90–101.
190. Jaeggi ET, Hamilton RM, Silverman ED, Zamora SA, Homberger LK et al. Outcome of children with fetal, neonatal or childhood diagnosis of isolated congenital atrioventricular block. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:130–137.
191. Odemuyiwa O, Camm AJ. Prophylactic pacing for prevention of sudden death in congenital heart block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1992;15:1526– 1530.
192. Michaelsson M, Jonzon A, Riesenfeld T. Isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block in adult life. A prospective study. Circulation 1995;92:442–449.
193. Michaelsson M, Riesenfeld T, Jonzon A. Natural history of congenital complete atrioventricular block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:2098–2101.
194. Breur JM, Udink ten Cate FE, Kapusta L et al. Pacemaker therapy in isolated congenital complete atri
oventricular block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2002;25:1685–1691.
195. Balmer C, Fasnacht M, Rahn M et al. Long-term follow up of children with congenital complete atrioventricular block and the impact of pacemaker therapy. Europace 2002;4:345–349.
196. Dewey RC, Capeless MA, Levy AM. Use of ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring to identify high-risk patients with congenital complete heart block. N Engl J Med 1987;316:835–839.
197. Pinsky WW, Gillette PC, Garson A JR et al. Diagnosis, management, and long-term results of patients with congenital complete atrioventricular block. Pediatrics 1982;69:728–733.
198. Villain E, Coastedoat-Chalumeau N, Marijon E et al. Presentation and prognosis of complete atrioventricular block in childhood, according to maternal antibody status. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:1682–1687.
199. Bruckheimer E, Berul C, Kopf GS et al. Late recovery of surgically-induced atrioventricular block in patients with congenital heart disease. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2002;6:191–197.
200. Gross GJ, Chiu CC, Hamilton RM et al. Natural history of postoperative heart block in congenital heart disease: implications for pacing intervation. Heart Rhythm 2006;3:601–604.
201. Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C et al. Task force on sudden cardiac death of the European Soci
ety of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2001;22:1374–1450.
202. Dorostkar PC, Eldar M, Belhassen B et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with long-QT syndrome treated with beta-blocker and continuous pacing. Circulation 1999;100:2431–2436.
203. Zipes DP, Camm AJ, Borggrefe M et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:1064–1108.
204. Walker F, Siu SC, Woods S et al. Long-term outcomes of cardiac pacing in adults with congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1894–1901.
205. Sachweh JS, Vazquez-Jimenez JF, Schondube FA et al. Twenty years experience with pediatric pacing: epicardial and transvenous stimulation.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2000;17:455–461.
206. Udink ten Cate F, Breur J, Boramanand N et al. Endocardial and epicardial steroid lead pacing in the neonatal and paediatric age group. Heart 2002;88:392–396.
207. Fortescue EB, Berul CI, Cecchin F et al. Patient, procedural, and hardware factors associated with pacemaker lead failure in pediatrics and congenital heart disease. Heart Rhythm 2004;1:150–159.
208. Silvetti MS, Drago F, Grutter G et al. Twenty years of paediatric cardiac pacing: 515 pacemakers and 480 leads im planted in 292 patients. Europace 2006;8:530–536.
209. Thambo JB, Bordachar P, Garrigue S et al. Detrimental ventricular remodeling in patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular apical pacing. Circulation 2004;110:3766–3772.
210. Cohen MI, Buck K, Tanel R et al. Capture management efficacy in children and young adults with endocardial and unipolar epicardial systems. Europace 2004;6:248–255.
211. Janousek J, Tomek V, Chaloupecky VA et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: a novel adjunct to treatment and prevention of systemic right ventricular failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1927–1931.
212. Dubin AM, Janousek J, Rhee E et al . Resynchronization therapy in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients: an international multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:2277–2283.
213. Moak JP, Hasbani K, Ramwell C et al. Dilated cardiomyopathy following right ventricular pacing for AV block in young patients: resolution after upgrading to biventricular pacing systems. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol
214. Miyomato Y, Curtiss E, Kormos R et al. Bradyarrhythmias after heart transplantation. Circulation 1990;82(Suppl. IV):313–317.
215. DiBiase A, Tse TM, Schnittger I et al. Frequency and mechanism of bradycardia in cardiac transplant reci
pients and need for pacemakers. Am J Cardiol 1991;67:1385–1389.
216. Jacquet L, Ziady G, Stein K et al. Cardiac rhythm disturbances early after orthotopic heart transplantation: prev
alence and clinical importance of the observed arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:832–837.
217. Holt ND, McComb JM. Cardiac tran splantation and pacemakers: when and what to implant? CEPR 2002;6:140–151.39
218. Parry G, Holt ND, Dark JH et al. Declining need for pacemaker implantation after cardiac transplantation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1998; 21:2350–2352.
219. Melton IC, Gilligan DM, Wood MA et al. Optimal cardiac pacing after heart transplantation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1999;22:1510–1527.
220. Scott CD, Dark JH, McComb JM. Evolution of the chronotropic response to exercise after cardiac transplantation. Am J Cardiol 1995;76:1292–1296.
221. Spirito P, Seidman CE, McKenna WJ et al. The management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 1997;336:775–785.
222. Hassenstein P, Wolter HH. Therapeutische Beherrschung einer bedrohlichen Situation bei der ideopathischen hypertrophischen Subaortenstenose. Verh Dtsh Ges Kreisl 1967;33:242–246.
223. Rothlin M, Mocceti T. Beeinflussung der muskula ̈ren Subaortenstenose durch intraventrikula ̈re Reizausbretung. Verh Dtsh Ges Kreisl 1967;27:411–415.
224. Gilgenkrantz JM, Cherrier F, Petitier H et al. Cardiomyopathie obstructive du ventricule gauche avec bloc auriculo-ventriculaire complet. Arch MalCoeur 1968;60:439–453.
225. Jeanrenaud X, Goy JJ, Kappenberger L. Effects of dual chamber pacing in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Lancet 1992;339:1318–1323.
226. Prinzen FW, van Oosterhour MFM, Delhaas T et al. Epicardial ventricular pacing at physiological heart rate leads to assymetrical changes in left ventricular wall thickness. Eur Heart J 1994;15(Suppl.):76.
227. Pak PH, Maughan L, Baughman KL et al. Mechanism of acute mechanical benefit from VDD pacing in hypertrophied heart similarity of responses in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive heart disease. Circulation 1998;98:242–248.
228. Prinzen FW, Augustijn CH, Arts T et al. The time sequence of electrical and mechanical activation during spontaneous beating and ectopic stimulation. Eur Heart J 1992;13:535–543.
229. Prinzen FW, Augustijn CH, Arts Tet al. Redistribution of myocardial fiber strain and blood flow by asynchronous activation. Am J Physiol 1990; 258:H300–H308.
230. Posma J, Blanksma P, Van der Wall E et al. Effects of permanent dual chamber pacing on myocardial perfusion in symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart 1996;76:358–362.
231. Pavin D, De Place H, Le Breton H et al. Effects of permanent dual chamber pacing on mitral regurgitation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 1999;20:203–210.
232. Nishimura RA, Hayes DL, Ilstrup DM et al. Effect of dual chamber pacing on systolic and diastolic function in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Acute Doppler echocardiographic and catheterization
hemodynamic study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:421–430.
233. Betocchi S, Bonow BO, Bacharach SL et al. Isovolumic relaxation period in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;7:74–81.
234. Betocchi S, Losi MA, Piscione T et al. Effects of dual-chamber pacing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and on diastolic function. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:498–502.
235. Watanabe K, Sekiya M, Ikeda S et al. Subacute and chronic effects of DDD pacing on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Jpn Circ J 2001;65:283–288.
236. Betocchi S, Elliott PM, Brguori C et al. Dual chamber pacing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: long term effects on diastolic function.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2002;25:1433–1440.
237. Gadler F, Linde C, Ryden L. Rapid return of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and symptoms following cessation of long-term atrioventricular synchronous pacing for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J
Cardiol 1999;83:553–557.
238. Patel P, Hussain W, Linde C et al. Pacing increases Connexin 43 expression in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm 2004;1:S22.
239. McDonald K, McWillimas E, O’Keeffe B et al. Functional assessment of patients treated with permanent dual
chamber pacing as a primary treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 1988;9: 893–898.
240. Fananapazir L, Cannon RO, Tripodi D et al. Impact of dual chamber permanent pacing in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with symptoms refractory to verapamil and adrenergic blocker therapy.
Circulation 1992;85:2149–2161.
241. Fananapazir L, Epstein ND, Curiel RV et al. Long-term results of dualchamber (DDD) pacing in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: evidence for progressive symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement and
reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 1994;90: 2731–2741.
242. Kappenberger L, Linde C, Daubert JC et al. and the Pacing in Cardiomyopathy (PIC) Study Group. Pacing in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy—a randomised crossover study. Eur Heart J 1997;18:1249–1256.
243. Kappenberger LJ, Linde C, Jean renaud X et al. and the Pacing in Cardiomyopathy (PIC) Study Group. Clinical progress after randomised on/off pacemaker treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Europace 1999;1:77–84.
244. Maron BJ, Nishimura RA, McKenna WJ et al., for the M-PATHY Study Investigators. Assessment of permanent dual-chamber pacing as a treatment for drug-refractory symptomatic patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 1999;99:2927–2933.
245. Nishimura RA, Trusty JM, Hayes DL et al. Dual chamber pacing for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy; a randomised double-blind crossover study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:435–441.
246. Linde C, Gadler F, Kappenberger L et al. Does pacemaker implantation carry a placebo effect? Am J Cardiol 1999;83:903–907.
247. Gadler F, Linde C, Kappenberger L et al. Significant improvement in quality of life following atrioventricular synchronous pacing in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 1999;20:1044–1050.
248. Gadler F, Linde C, Juhlin-Dannfelt A, Ribeiro A, Ryden L. Long term effects of dual chamber pacing in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy without outflow obstruction at rest. Eur Heart J 1997;18:636–642.
249. Gadler F, Linde C, Juhlin-Dannfelt A et al. Influence of right ventricular pacing site on left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:1219–
250. Gras D, De Place H, Le Breton H et al. L’importance du synchronisme auriculo-ventriculaire dans la cardiomypathie hypertrophique obstructive traite ́e par stimulation cardiaque. Arch Mal Coeur 1995;88:215–223.
251. Jeanrenaud X, Schlapper J, Froomer M et al. Dual chamber pacing in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: beneficial effect of AV nodal ablation of optimal left ventricular capture and filling. Pacing Clin
Electrophysiol 1997;20:293–300.
252. Ommen SR, Nishimura RA, Squires RW, Schaff HV, Danielson G Tajik AJ. Comparison of dual-chamber pacing versus septal myectomy for the treatment of patients with hypertropic obstructive cardiomyopathy: a
comparison of objective hemodynamic and exercise end points. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:191–196.
253. Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J et al. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1230–1235.
254. Shahar E, Whitney CW, Redline S et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cr
oss-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:19–25.
255. Peker Y, Hedner J, Kraiczi H et al. Respiratory disturbance index: an independent predictor of mortality in coronary artery disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:81–86.
256. Nadar S, Prasad N, Taylor RS, Lip GY. Positive pressure ventilation in the management of acute and chronic cardiac failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol 2005;99:171–185.
257. Garrigue S, Bordier P, Jais P et al. Benefit of atrial pacing in sleep apnea syndrome. N Engl J Med 2002;346:404–412.
258. Simantirakis EN, Schiza SE, Chryso stomakis SI et al. Atrial overdrive  pacing for the obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2568–2577.
259. Pepin J-L, Defaye P, Garrigue S et al. Overdrive atrial pacing does not improve obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J 2005;25:343–347.
260. Luthje L, Unterberg-Buchwald C, Dajani D et al. Atrial overdrive pacing in patients with sleep apnea with implanted pacemaker. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;172:118–122.
261. Unterberg C, Luthje L, Szych J, Vollmann D, Hasenfuss G, Andreas S. Atrial overdrive pacing compared to CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Heart J 2005;26:2658–2675.
262. Krahn AD, Yee R, Erickson MK et al. Physiologic pacing in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective, randomized crossover trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:379–383.
263. Sinha AM, Skobel EC, Breithardt OA et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves central sleep apnea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:68–71.
264. Skobel EC, Sinha AM, Norra C et al. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on sleep quality, quality of life, and symptomatic depression in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne–Stokes respiration. Sleep
Breath 2005;9:159–166.
265. Vagnini FJ, Gourin A, Antell HI et al. Implantation sites of cardiac pacemaker electrodes and myocardial
contractility. Ann Thorac Surg 1967;4:431–439.
266. Tyers GF. Comparison of the effect on cardiac function of single-site and simultaneous multiple-site ventricular stimulation after A-V block. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1970;59:211–217.
267. Gibson DG, Chamberlain DA, Coltart DJ et al. Effect of changes in ventricular activation on cardiac haemodynamics in man. Comparison of right ventricular, left ventricular, and simultaneous pacing of both ventricles. Br Heart J 1971;33:397–400.
268. De Teresa E, Chamoro JL, Pupon A. An even more physiological pacing: changing the sequence of
ventricular activation. In: Steinbach E, ed. Proceedings of the VIIth World Congress on Cardiac Pacing, Vienna,
Austria; 1983. p95–100.
269. Cazeau S, Ritter P, Bakdach S et al. Four chamber pacing in dilated cardiomyopathy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1994;17:1974–1979.
270. Bakker P, Meijburg H, De Vries JW et al. Biventricular pacing in endstage heart failure improves functional capacity and left ventricular function. J Interv Cardiol 2000;4:395–404.
271. Hawkins NM, Petrie MC, MacDonald MR, Hogg KJ, McMurray JJV. Selecting patients for cardiac resync
hronisation therapy: electrical or mechanical dyssynchrony? Eur Heart J 2006;27:1270–1281.
272. Vernooy K, Verbeek XAAM, Peschar M et al. Left bundle branch block induces ventricular remodelling and functional septal hypoperfusion. Eur Heart J 2005;26:91–98.
273. Spragg DD, Leclercq C, Loghmani M et al. Regional alterations in protein expression in the dyssynchronous failing heart. Circulation 2003;108:929–932.
274. Nowak B, Sinha A, Schaefer W et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy homogenizes myocardial glucose metabolism and perfusion in dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block. J Am Coll Cardiol
275. Ukkonenen H, Beanlands R, Burwash I et al. Effect of cardiac resynchronization on myocardial efficiency and regional oxidative metabolism. Circulation 2003;107:28–31.
276. Sundell J, Engblom E, Koistinen J et al. The effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left ventricular function, myocardial energetics and  metabolic reserve in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1027–1033.
277. Alonso C, Leclercq C, Victor F et al. Electrocardiographic predictive factors of long-term clinical improvement with multisite biventricular pacing in advanced heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1999;84:1417–1421.
278. Leclercq C, Cazeau S, Ritter P et al. A pilot experience with permanent biventricular pacing to treat advanc
ed heart failure. Am Heart J 2000; 140:862–870.
279. Ricci R, Ansalone G, Tosacano S et al. Cardiac resynchronization: materials, technique, and results. The InSy
nc Italian Registry. Eur Heart J 2000;2:J6–J15.
280. Gras D, Leclercq C, Tang AS et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in advanced heart failure:
the multicenter InSync clinical study. Eur J Heart Fail 2002;4:311–320.
281. Cazeau S, Leclercq C, Lavergne Tet al. Effects of multisite biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay. N Engl J Med 2001;344:873–880.
282. Abraham WT, Fisher WG, Smith AL et al. Cardiac resynchronization in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1845–1853.
283. Auricchio A, Stellbrink C, Sack S et al., Pacing Therapies in Congestive Heart Failure (PATH-CHF) Study Group. Long-term clinical effect of haemodynamically optimized cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients
with heart failure and ventricular conduction delay. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:2026–2033.
284. Auricchio A, Stellbrink C, Butter C et al. Clinical efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy using
left ventricular pacing in heart failure patients stratified by severity of ventricular conduction delay. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:2109–2116.
285. Higgins S, Hummel J, Niazi I et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for the treatment of heart failure in patients with intraventricular conduction delay and malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol
286. Young JB, Abraham WT, Smith AL et al. Combined cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardioverter defibrillation in advanced chronic heart failure: the MIRACLE ICD trial. JAMA 2003;289:2685–2694.
287. Abraham WT, Young JB, Leon AR et al., Multicenter InSync ICD II Study Group. Effects of cardiac resynchronization on disease progression in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, an indication for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and mildly symptomatic heart failure. Circulation 2004;110:2864–2868.
288. Bristow MR, Saxon LA, Boehmer J et al., Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, Defibrillation in Heart Fa
ilure (COMPANION) Investigators. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable
defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2140–2150.
289. Cleland JGF, Daubert JC, Erdmann E et al. The effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on morbidity a
nd mortality in heart failure (the CArdiac REsynchronization-Heart Failure [CARE-HF] Trial). N Engl J Med
290. Bradley D, Bradley E, Baughmann et al. Cardiac resynchronization and death from progressive heart failure. JAMA 2003;289:730–740.
291. Mc Alister EA, Ezekowitz JA, Wieb e N et al. Systematic review: cardiac resynchronization in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:381–390.
292. Freemantle N, Tharmanathan P, Calvert MJ, Abraham WT, Ghosh J, Cleland JGF. Cardiac resynchronisation for patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Eur J Heart Fail 2006;8:433–440.
293. Linde C, Leclercq C, Rex S et al. Long-term benefits of biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: results
from the MUSTIC study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:111–118.
294. Cleland JGF, Daubert JC, Erdmann E et al. Longer-term effects of cardiac resynchronisation therapy on mortality in heart failure [The Cardiac Resynchronisation-Heart Failure (CARE-HF) trial extension phase]. Eur
Heart J 2006;27:1928–1932.
295. Duncan A, Wait D, Gibson D et al. Left ventricular remodeling and hemodynamic effects of multisite pacing in patients with left systolic dysfunction and activation disturbances in sinus rhythm: sub-study of the MUSTIC trial. Eur Heart J 2003;24:430–441.
296. Stellbrink C, Breithardt O, Franke A. Impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy using hemodynamically optimized pacing on left ventricular remodeling in patients with congestive heart failure and ventricular
conduction disturbances. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1957–1965.
297. St John Sutton M, Plappert T, Abraham W et al. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left ventricular size and function in chronic heart failure. Circulation 2003;107:1985–1990.
298. Feldman AM, de Lissovoy G, De Marco T et al. Cost effectiveness of cardiac resynchronisation therapy in the co
mparison of medical therapy, pacing and defibrillation in Heart failure (COMPANION) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol
299. Calvert M, Freemantle N, Yao G et al. Cost-effectiveness of cardiac resynchronisation therapy: results from the CARE-HF trial. Eur Heart J 2005;26:2681–2688.
300. Yao GL, Freemantle N, Calvert MJ,Bryan S, Daubert JC, Cleland JG. The long-term cost-effectiveness of cardiac resynchronisation therapy with or without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Eur Heart J 2007;28:42–51.
301. Leclercq C, Hare J. Ventricular resynchronization. Current state of the art. Circulation 2004;10:296–299.
302. Bleeker G, Schalij, Molhoek S et al. Frequency of left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and a narrow QRS complex. Am J Cardiol 2005;95:140–142.
303. Ghio S, Constantin C, Klersy C et al. Interventricular and intraventricular dysynchrony are common in heart failure patients, regardless of QRS duration. Eur Heart J 2004;25:571–578.
304. Bader H, Garrigue S, Lafitte S et al. Intra-left ventricular electromechanical asynchrony. A new independent predictor of severe cardiac events in heart failure patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:248–256.
305. Yu C-M, Chan Y-S, Zhang Q et al. Benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure patients with narrow QRS complexes and coexisting systolic asynchrony by echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;
306. Achilli A, Sassara M, Ficili S et al. Long-term effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with refractory heart failure and narrow QRS. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:2117–2124.
307. Gasparini M, Mantica M, Galimberti P et al. Beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with a narrow QRS. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2003;26:169–174.
308. Bleeker GB, Holman ER, Steendijk P et al. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy in patients with a narrow QRS complex. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:2243–2250.
309. Daubert JC. Atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a mutually noxious association. Europace 2004;5:S1–S4.
310. Baldasseroni S, Opasich C, Gorini M et al. Left bundle branch block is associated with increased 1-year sudden and total mortality rate in 5517 outpatients with congestive heart failure: a report from the Italian network on congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 2002;143:398–405.
311. Leclercq C, Walker S, Linde C et al. Comparative effects of permanent biventricular and right-univentricular pacing in heart failure patients withchronic atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 20 02;23:1780–1787.
312. Gasparini M, Auricchio A, Regoli F et al. Four-year efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy on exercise tolerance and disease progression: the importance of performing atrioventricular junction ablation in patients with
atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:734–743.
313. Leclercq C, Cazeau S, Lellouche D et al. Upgrading from single chamber right ventricular to biventricular pacing in permanently paced patients with worsening heart failure: the RD-CHF study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
2007;30(Suppl. 1):S23–S30.
314. Brignole F, Gammage M, Puggioni E et al. Comparative assessment of right, left, and biventricular pacing in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2005;7:712–722.
315. Doshi RN, Daoud EG, Fellows C et al., PAVE Study Group. Left ventricular-based cardiac stimulation post AV nodal ablation evaluation (the PAVE study). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2005;16:1160–1165.
316. Packer M. Proposal for a new clinic al end point to evaluate the efficacy of drugs and devices in the treatment of
chronic heart failure. J Card Fail 2001;7:176–182.
317. Cohn JN, Ferrari R, Sharpe N. Cardiac remodelling: concept and clinical implications. A consensus paper from an international forum on cardiac remodelling. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:569–582.
318. Janousek J, Vojtovic P, Hucin B et al. Resynchronization pacing is a useful adjunct to the management of acute heart failure after surgery for congenital heart defects. Am J Cardiol 2001;88:145–152.
319. Zimmerman FJ, Starr JP , Koenig PR, Smith P, Hi jazi ZM, Bacha EA. Acute hemodynamic benefit of multisite ventricular pacing after congenital heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;75:1775–1780.
320. Pham PP, Balaji S, Shen I, Ungerleider R, Li X, Sahn DJ. Impact of conventional versus biventricular pacing on hemodynamics and tissue Doppler imaging indexes of resynchronization postoperatively in children
with congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:2284–2289.
321. Dubin AM, Feinstein JA, Reddy VM , Hanley FL, Van Hare GF, Rosenthal DN. Electrical resynchronization: a novel therapy for the failing right ventricle. Circulation 2003;107:2287–2289.
322. Zipes DP, Camm AJ, Borggrefe M et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Circulation 2006;114:e385–e484.
323. Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS et al. Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhythmia. N Engl Med 1996;335:1933–1940.
324. Buxton AE, Lee KL, Fisher JD et al., for the Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial Investig
ators. A randomized study of the prevention of sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med
325. Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall JW et al. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2002;346:877–883.
326. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB et al. Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure
Trial (SCD-HeFT) Investigators: amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352:225–237.
327. Kadish A, Dyer A, Daubert JP et al. Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:2151–2158.
328. Strickberger SA, Hummel JD, Bartlett TG et al. Amiodarone versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: randomized trial in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and asymptomatic nonsustained ventri-
cular tachycardia—AMIOVIRT. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1707–1712.
329. Bansch D, Antz M, Boczor S et al. Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the Cardiomyopathy Trial (CAT). Circulation 2002;105:1453–1458. 41
330. Rivero-Ayerza M, Theuns D, Garcia-garcia HM, Boersma E, Simoons M, Jordaens LJ. Effects of cardiac resy
nchronization therapy on overall mortality and mode of death: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled
trials. Eur Heart J 2006;27:2682–2688.
331. Auricchio A, Metra M, Gasparini  M et al., for the Multicenter Longitudinal Observational Study (MILOS) Group. Long-term survival of patients with heart failure and ventricular conduction delay treated with cardiac resyncchronization therapy. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:232–238.
332. Gasparini M, Bocchiardo M, Lunati M et al. Comparison of 1 year effects of left ventricular and biventricular pacing in heart failure patients with ventricular arrhythmias and left bundle-branch block: the BELIEVE (Bi vs
left ventricular pacing: an international pilot evaluation on heart failure patients with ventricular arrhythmias) multi-center prospective randomized pilot study. Am Heart J 2006;152:e1–e7.
333. Touiza A, Etienne Y, Gilard M et al. Long-term left ventricular pacing:assessment and comparison with biventricular pacing in patients with severe congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1966–1970.
334. Blanc JJ, Bertault-Valls V, Fatemi M et al. Midterm benefits of left univentricular pacing in patients with
congestive heart failure. Circulation 2004;109:1741–1744.
335. Blanc JJ, Etienne Y, Gilard M et al. Evaluation of different ventricular pacing sites in patients with severe heart failure. Results of an acute hemodynamic study. Circulation 1997;96:3273–3277.
336. Blanc JJ, Etienne Y, Gilard M et al. Left ventricular stimulation in treatment of heart failure. Presse Med 2000;29:1788–1792.
337. Wilkoff BL, Cook JR, Epstein AE et al. Dual-chamber or ventricular backup pacing in patients with an implantabl e defibrillator: the dual Chamber and VVI Implantable Defibrillator (DAVID) Trial. JAMA 2002; 288:3115–3123.
338. Sweeney MO, Hellkamp AS, Ellenbo gen KA et al. Adverse effect of ventricular pacing in heart failure and atrial fibrillation among patients with normal baseline QRS duration in a clinical trial of pacemaker therapy for sinus node dysfunction. Circulation 2003;107:2932–2937.
339. Ritter P, Padeletti L, Gillio-Meina L, Gaggini G. Determination of the optimal atrioventricular delay in DDD pacing. Comparison between echo and peak endocardial acceleration measurements. Europace 1999;1:126–
340. Verbeek XA, Vernooy K, Peschar M et al. Intraventricular resynchronization for optimal left ventricular function during pacing in experimental left bundle-branch block. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:558–567.
341. Parreira L, Santos JF, Madeira J et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with sequential biventricular pacing: impact of echocardiography guided VV delay optimisation on acute results. Rev Port Cardiol 2005;24:1355–1365.
342. Bernstein AD, Irwin ME, Parsonnet V. Antibradycardia-pacemaker follow–up: effectiveness, needs, and resources. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1994;17:1714–1729.
343. Sutton R. Guidelines for pacemaker follow up. Report of a British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group (BPEG) policy conference on pacemaker follow up. Heart 1996;76:458–460.
344. Petch M. Driving and heart disease. Eur Heart J 1998;19:1165–1177.
345. Pinski SL, Trohman RG. Interferences in implantable cardiac devices, part I. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2002;25:1367–1381.
346. Niehaus M, Tebbenjohanns J. Electromagnetic interference in patients with implanted pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillators. Heart 2001; 86:246–248.
347. Hayes DL, Wang PJ, Reynolds DW et al. Interference with cardiac pacemakers by cellular telephones.
N Engl J Med 1997;336:1473–1479.
348. Pinski SL, Trohman RG. Interferences in implantable cardiac devices, part II. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2002;25:1496–1509.
349. Prasad SK, Pennell DJ. Safety of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with cardiovascular implants and devices. Heart 2004;90:1241–1244.
350. Hayes DL, Strathmore NF. Electromagnetic interference with implantable devices. In: Elenbogen KA, Kay GN, Wilkoff BL, eds. Clinical Cardiac Pacing and Defibrallation. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company;
2000. p939–952.
351. Atlee JL, Bernstein AD. Cardiac rhythm management devices (part II): perioperative management. Anesthesiology 2001;95:1492–1506.
352. Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Schumacher B, Jung W, Luderitz B. Pacemaker function during radiofrequency ablation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1995;18:1037–1044.
353. Langberg J, Abber J, Thuroff JW, Griffin JC. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on pacemaker function. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1987;10:1142–1146.
354. Achenbach S, Moshage W, Diem B, Bieberle T, Schibgilla V, Bachmann K. Effects of magnetic resonance im
aging on cardiac pacemaker and electrodes. Am Heart J 1997;134:467–473.
355. Gregoratos G, Abrams J, Epstein AE et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/North American Society
for Pacing and Electrophysiology Committee: ACC/ AHA/NASPE 2002 guideline update for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmia devices: summary article. A report of the American College of Cardio-
logy/American Heart Association TaskForce on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee to
Update the 1998 Pacemaker Guidelines). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2002;13:1183–1199.
356. Hayes DL, Naccarelli GV, Furman S et al. Report of the NASPE Policy Conference training requirements fo
r permanent pacemaker selection, implantation, and follow-up. North American Society of Pacing and
Electrophysiology. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1994;17:6–12.
357. Rouleau F, Merheb M, Geffroy S et al. Echocardiographic assessment of the interventricular delay of activation and correlation to the QRS width in dilated cardiomyopathy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2001;24:1500–1506.
358. Pitzalis MV, Iacoviello M, Romito R et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy tailored by echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular asynchrony.J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1615–1622.
359. Sogaard P, Egeblad H, Kim WY et al. Tissue Doppler imaging predicts improved systolic performance and reversed left ventricular remodeling during long-term cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol
360. Breithardt OA, Stellbrink C, Kr amer AP et al., Study Group. Pacing Therapies for Congestive Heart Failure. Echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular asynchrony predicts an acute hemodynamic benefit of card-
iac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:536–545.
361. Yu CM, Fung WH, Lin H et al. Predictors of left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:684–
362. Breithardt OA, Stellbrink C, Herbots L et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy can reverse abnormal myocardial strain distribution in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42:486–494.
363. Bax JJ, Bleeker GB, Marwick TH et al. Left ventricular dyssynchrony predicts response and prognosis after cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1834–1840.
364. Penicka M, Bartunek J, De Bruyne B et al. Improvement of left ventricular function after cardiac resynchronization therapy is predicted by tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography. Circulation 2004;109:978–983.
365. Gorcsan J III, Kanzaki H, Bazaz R et al. Usefulness of echocardiographic tissue synchronization imaging to predict acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1178–1181.
366. Yu CM, Fung JW, Zhang Q et al. Tissue Doppler imaging is superior to strain rate imaging and postsystolic shor tening on the prediction of reverse remodeling in both ischemic and nonischemic heart failure after cardiac resynchronization therapy. Circulation 2004;110:66–73.
367. Bordachar P, Lafitte S, Reuter S et al. Echocardiographic parameters of ventricular dyssynchrony validation in patients with heart failure using sequential biventricular pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:2157–2165.
368. Yu CM, Bleeker GB, Fung JW et al. Left ventricular reverse remodeling but not clinical improvement predicts long-term survival after cardiac resynchronization therapy. Circulation 2005;112:1580–1586.
369. Marcus GM, Rose E, Viloria EM et al. Septal to posterior wall motion delay fails to predict reverse remodeling or clinical improvement in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol
370. Opasich C, Pinna GD, Bobbio M et al. Peak exercise oxygen consumption in chronic heart failure: toward efficient use in the individual patient. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:766–775.
371. Ingle L, Shelton RJ, Rigby AS, Nabb S, Clark AL, Cleland JG. The reproducibility and sensitivity of the 6-min walk test in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2005;26:1742–1751.
372. Rector TS, Kubo SH, Cohn JN. Patients’ self assessment of their congestive heart failure content, reliability and validity of a new measure—The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. Heart Fail 1987;3:198–
373. Butter C, Auricchio A, Stellbrink C et al., Pacing Therapy for Chronic Heart Failure II Study Group. Effect of resynchronization therapy stimulation site on the systolic function of heart failure patients. Circulation 2001;104:3026–3029.
374. Bernstein AD, Irwin ME, Parsonnet V et al. Report of the NASPE policy conference on antibradycardia pacemaker follow-up: effectiveness, needs, and resources. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1994;17:1714–1729.
375. Levine PA, Belott PH, Bilitch M et al. Recommendations of the NASPE policy conference on pacemaker prog
rammability and follow-up programs. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1983;6:1222–1223.
376. Levine PA. Proceedings of the Policy Conference of the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology on programmability and pacemaker follow-up programs. Clin Prog Pacing Electrophysiol
377. Fraser J, Gillis A, Irwin M et al. Guidelines for pacemaker follow-up in Canada: a consensus statem
ent of the Canadian Working Group on Cardiac Pacing. Can J Cardiol 2000;16:355–376.
378. Adamson PB, Smith AL, Abraham WL et al. Continuous autonomic assessment in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Prognostic value of heart failure variability measured by an implanted cardiac resynchronization
device. Circulation 2004;110:2389–2394.
379. Fantoni C, Raffa S, Regoli F et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves heart rate profile and heart rate variability of patients with moderate to severe heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:1875–1882.
380. Yu CM, Wang L, Chau E et al. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring in patients with heart failure: correlation with fluid status and feasibility ofearly warning preceding hospitalization. Circulatio n 2005;112:841–848.
381. Kindermann M, Frohlig G, Doerr T et al. Optimizing the AV delay in DDD pacemaker patients with high degree
AV block: mitral valve Doppler versus impedance. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:2453–2462.
382. Bradley K, Desai A, Coman J et al. Long term retention of cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:72–77.
383. Gras D, Bo ̈cker D, Lunati M et al., on behalf of The CARE-HF Study Steering Committee and Investigators. Implantation of cardiac resynchron ization therapy systems in the CARE-HF trial: procedural success rate and
safety. Europace 2007;9:516–522.42
384. Chauvin M, Cazeau S, Frank R et al. Recommendations from the French Cardiology Society concerning the competence, performance and the environment required for the implantation and surveillance of pacemakers.
Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 2006;99:275–278.
Daniel Ganea
Vino cu mine

Daniel Ganea

"Prin vreau să fiu mai aproape de pacienții mei."  
Dr. Daniel Ganea este "Doctorul tău", Medic Specialist Medic de familie, medic rezident cardiologie, cu Competență în Ecografie și scrie aici articole pentru pacienți. A început cariera ca medic specialist în 2009 în Urgență, a lucrat și pe Ambulanță, aflând ce-și doresc de la medic pacienții care solicită online consultații medicale cu medic specialist la domiciliu. Astfel a aparut
Dacă ai citit Termeni și condiții, fă o programare online sau telefonic:

Programează consultație

"Cine te poate sfatui mai bine decat medicul, specialist in domeniul lui?"
Daniel Ganea
Vino cu mine

Ultimele postari ale lui Daniel Ganea (vezi toate)

Lasă un răspuns

Adresa ta de email nu va fi publicată. Câmpurile obligatorii sunt marcate cu *